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工件装卸机械手控制系统设计
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  • 工件装卸机械手控制系统设计
    工业机械手;控制系统;电气驱动;结构工件装卸机械手控制系统设计
    摘要
    工业机械手在现今的工业体系中越发的重要,在如今的机械加工制造业中,工业机械手它的主要用途是在装卸物料于机床或者是模锻压力机以及进行焊接、喷涂等工艺。并且随着工业技术的发展,尤其是在中国如此快速发展的情况下,并且提出“中国制造2025计划”,这就要求我国的工业制造技术必须要实现一个突飞猛进的跨越。工业机械手在全自动生产线上不仅仅可以代替人类而且还实时配合生产线的工作要求,让产出无限放大。并且工业机械手自动化程度高、工作灵活多变,可以适应各种各样的工作场合,比如高温、腐蚀及有毒气体空间的环境中。在如此的环境下,机械手不仅等价甚至高于的替代工人们的劳动,而且使得工人免受工作环境的危害。为了不同工业技术工作的要求,促进工业机械手的创新能够像雨后春笋一样蓬勃发展,各式各样的工业机械手的设计就显得尤为重要。
    本文根据本科阶段所学的机械基础知识,以及电气基础技术进行设计的工件装卸机械手控制系统设计。本设计的机械手采用交流伺服电机进行驱动,使用PLC作为控制核心,通过PLC端口输入的变化,反馈回给PLC,然后在对机体结构进行控制。
    本文通过对工件装卸机械手的控制要求进行分析,在各类控制期间的选择之下,决定采用西门子公司的可编程逻辑控制器CPU226AC/DC/继电器,是属于S7-200系列中的比较优秀的型号,由于系列号比较先进所以它具有许多强大的功能,因此这也是其被大部分工业生产所用的原因,根据它的功能定义,在端口数上具有24输入/16继电器输出,,实现机械手的灵活控制。本文通过常用的机械设计对机械手的机械结构进行了设计,还绘制了与之相适应的电气原理图,并对PLC的I/O端口进行了分配以及编写PLC控制程序,从而实现任务要求,实现对机械手行为动作的严格把控。
    本文使用的方法不但可以应用于机械手控制系统的设计,对其他任务的设计应用也有一定的向导作用,并且这些工作的意义也是相当的,它对于工业机械手产品在系列化上,也具有一定的发展意义。


    关键字:工业机械手;控制系统;PLC;电气驱动;结构



    Design of Control system for workpiece loading and unloading manipulator
    Abstract
    Industrial manipulators are more and more important in today's industrial system. In the machinery manufacturing industry, manipulators are mainly used for machine tools, materials for forging presses, welding, spraying, and other operations, and with the development of industrial technology. Especially in the case of China's rapid development, and put forward the "China manufacturing 2025 plan", which requires that our country's industrial manufacturing technology must achieve a rapid leap forward.In the fully automatic production line, the industrial manipulator can not only replace humans but also cooperate with the work requirements of the production line in real time, allowing the output to be infinitely enlarged.In addition, the industrial manipulator has a high degree of automation and flexibility in its work. It can adapt to various workplaces, such as high temperatures, corrosion, and toxic gas spaces.in such environments,The manipulator is not only equivalent to or even higher than the labor of the workers, but also protects the workers from the work environment.For the requirements of different industrial technology work, the promotion of industrial manipulator innovation can flourish like a spring spring, and the design of various types of industrial manipulator is particularly important.
    This designs the control system of workpiece handling manipulator according to the basic knowledge of mechanical and electrical basic technology. The manipulator is driven by AC servo motor, PLC is used as the control core, the input change of PLC port is fed back to PLC, and then the structure of the body is controlled.
    By analyzing the control requirements of workpiece handling manipulator, under the choice of various control periods, this paper decides to adopt Siemens programmable logic controller CPU226AC / DC / relay, which belongs to the excellent model of S7-200 series. Because the series number is more advanced, so it has many powerful functions, so this is why it is used by most industrial production, according to its function definition, It has 24 input / 16 relay output on the port number to realize the flexible control of manipulator. In this paper, the mechanical structure of the manipulator is designed through the commonly used mechanical design. The corresponding electrical schematic diagram is drawn, and the I / O port of PLC is allocated and the PLC control program is written to fulfill the task requirements and strictly control the behavior of manipulator.
    The method used in this paper not only can be used in the design of manipulator control system, but also has a certain guiding effect on the design and application of other tasks, and these works are of certain significance to the development of serial products of industrial manipulator.

    Key words: industrial manipulator; control system,;PLC,;electrical drive;structure
























    主 要 符 号 表
    G,F 力
    μ,f 摩擦系数
    W,m 质量
    M 力矩
    S 面积
    τ,σ 许用应力
    WZ 抗弯截面系数
    P 导程
    J 转动惯量
    D,d 直径
    L 长度
    T 转矩
    I 输入映像寄存器
    Q 输出映像寄存器
    SM 特殊标志位寄存器...
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